To our Readers of the Stomatology Edu Journal

Wishing everyone a very Happy Children’s Day.
Let us celebrate this day like we have become children again.
Let us just follow our hearts.

Editorial team





The cost of publishing in today’s scientific e-world

Dear readers,
Dear authors,
According to Stephen Buranyi, scientific writer with the Guardian, scientific publishing is a vast business, with revenues varying between the music recording and film industries, but far more profitable.  herefore, it is not difficult to understand why the scientific publishing business is so profitable. After all, researchers need publications to advance in their career. The majority of scientific journals offer article submissions using online manuscript manager platforms, which resulted in a transition from editorial staff to contributing authors to complete the submission process and to comply with a whole series of journal guidelines.[…]

Constantinus Politis

Constantinus Politis




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Constantinus Politis_website



Effectiveness of school-based fluoride mouth rinsing program in schoolchildren from Kandy District, Sri Lanka

Dental caries is still epidemic and a significant public health problem in developing countries. No research on a fluoride mouth rinsing program has been conducted in Sri Lanka yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a supervised school-based 0.2% sodium fluoride mouth rinsing program among 6 year-old Sri Lanka school children […]

Chandra Herath, Tharanga Nandasena, Kaung Myat Thwin, Anushka Abeysundara, Sampath Ratnayake, Hiroshi Ogawa, Hideo Miyazaki, Takeyasu Maeda

Chandra Herath
Tharanga Nandasena
Kaung Myat Thwin
Anushka Abeysundara
Sampath Ratnayake
Hiroshi Ogawa
Hideo Miyazaki
Takeyasu Maeda


(abstract) Introduction: Dental caries is still epidemic and a significant public health problem in developing countries. No research on a fluoride mouth rinsing program has been conducted in Sri Lanka yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a supervised school-based 0.2% sodium fluoride mouth rinsing program among 6 year-old Sri Lanka school children. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 415 schoolchildren from the Yatinuwara educational zone of the Kandy district, Sri Lanka from January 2011 to January 2014. The children were allocated into two groups by adjusting their socio-demographic background and the fluoride level in drinking water at school level; Group 1 received 0.2% sodium fluoride mouth rinses weekly, and Group 2 was the control group. A clinical oral examination and oral health education were performed at baseline and annual follow-ups. Results: At the baseline, the mean age of school children in the intervention group and the control group were 6.17 ± 0.41 years and 6.08 ± 0.50 years, respectively. Almost all of the children (>90%) used fluoride toothpaste in both groups. After the fluoride mouth rinsing program, the intervention group (77.8%) showed higher caries free proportion than the control group (63.1%), although no statistically significant difference occurred. The mean DMFT and DMFS indices in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Conclusion: The school-based fluoride mouth rinsing program indicated a significant tendency of preventing future caries incidence among children with permanent dentition. Keywords: Fluoride Mouth Rinsing; Dental Caries; 6 Year-Old; School Children; Sri Lanka.
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Arrest of early carious lesions after professional application of different fluoride agents

The conventional treatment of caries lesions has historically focused on the mechanical treatment of the lesion. Such an approach [17] disregards the ecological imbalances in the oral cavity, involves restorations that require replacement and which become larger with time, and can result in tooth loss. Successive investigations have reported findings that support a paradigm shift in the treatment of caries. […]

Graciela Liliana Klemonskis, Celina Cornejo, Mariana Toral, Pablo Andrés Salgado, Aldo Fabián Squassi


(abstract) Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three professionally applied fluoride agents in arresting early carious lesions in young permanent teeth. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed. Eligible population: Schoolchildren aged 5-7 years presenting at least one permanent molar with early active carious lesion. Sample: 107 dental surfaces with early occlusal carious lesions (lesion code=1-2; activity code=2 -ICDAS II criteria-). Study design: (1) Baseline diagnosis, performed by 2 researchers (Kappa inter-observer: 0.8). (2) Application of a protocol for cariogenic infection control. (3) Participant assignment to groups: matched according to complexity of treatment needs at baseline: Group 1(G1) 5% NaF varnish Duraphat® (n=53); Group 2 (G2) 5% NaF varnish containing β-TCP tricalcium phosphate (n=33) Clinpro White Varnish®; Group 3 (G3) resin-modified glass ionomer cement varnish Clinpro XT Varnish® (n=19). (4) Single professional application of a fluoride agent. (5) Caries assessment 1 year post-treatment. Statistical analysis. The frequency of (a) early caries lesion remineralization one year post-treatment and (b) carious lesions that remained active but showed no progression 1 year post-treatment were calculated. Chi-Square and proportion comparison tests for independent samples were used to evaluate differences among groups. Results: Proportion of arrested lesions 1-year post treatment: G1=54.5%, G2=43.4%, G3=47.4%. No statistical difference was found among groups (p< 0.05). Proportion of lesions remaining active at 1 year showing no caries progression: G1=69%, G2=80%, G3=100%. No statistical difference was found among groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The three professionally applied fluoride agents showed similar effectiveness in arresting early carious lesions in young permanent teeth 1 year post-application. Keywords: Tooth Remineralization; Fluoride Varnishes; Caries Arrest; Preventive Dentistry; Topical Fluorides. | (read pdf) |


Volume, asymmetry and reciprocal relationships between paranasal sinuses: a 3D segmentation study on head CT-scans

The paranasal sinuses are air-filled anatomical structures inside the skull and facial bones forming a complex interconnected system communicating with the nasal cavities through an ostium [1,2]. There are four paired paranasal sinuses: the maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinuses, and the ethmoid cells, with great inter- and intra-individual variations. […]

Giulia Andrea Guidugli, Daniele Gibelli, Michaela Cellina, Antonio Giancarlo Oliva, Luisa Barni, Patrizia Sartori, Chiarella Sforza


(abstract) Introduction: Very little is known about the morphology of paranasal sinuses, especially with respect to symmetry. Methodology: The head CT-scans of 100 patients (50 male, 50 female) were retrospectively analyzed. The volume segmentation of frontal, sphenoid and maxillary sinuses was performed through semi-automatic segmentation. An asymmetry index was extracted, and differences according to sex and side were assessed through ANOVA test (p<0.05). Pearson test was applied to verify possible correlation between age and volume and asymmetry index in different paranasal sinuses and sexes (p<0.05). Results: On average, male sinuses were larger in volume than female ones (p<0.01). Generally, volumes of the three sinuses were significantly related each other in both sexes (correlation coefficients ranging between 0.34 and 0.58). In both sexes, the maxillary sinus was less asymmetric than the other two types, without significant sex-related differences (p>0.05). Significant inverse correlations between sinus volume and asymmetry index were found for the sphenoid and maxillary sinuses in males, and for the maxillary sinus in females. No correlation of sinus volume or asymmetry index with age was found, with the exception of maxillary volume/age in females. Conclusion: The present results may find practical applications in planning surgical procedures involving paranasal sinuses. Keywords: Anatomy; CT-Scan; Segmentation; Paranasal Sinuses; Surgery.
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Analysis of stress generated in the enamel of an upper first premolar: a finite element study

Non-carious cervical lesions involve the loss of hard dental tissues in the cervical areas of the teeth, without carious activity [1,2]. These lesions are important because, in a first stage, they can produce gingival retractions associated with teeth sensitivity [3], and in an advanced stage they can determine endodontic pathology and even the fracture of the teeth involved [4][…]

Andreea Stănuşi, Veronica Mercuţ, Monica Scrieciu, Luminiţa Dăguci, Sanda Mihaela Popescu, Monica Mihaela Iacov Crăiţoiu, Ştefan Castravete, Marina Olimpia Amărăscu


(abstract) Introduction: This study investigated the distribution and magnitude of stress generated in the enamel of an upper first premolar, after applying normal and excessive occlusal loads in a vertical and horizontal direction, using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Methodology: A 3D virtual model of an upper first premolar was analyzed. The CT images of the tooth were converted into 3D data using the program MIMICS and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used for the stress study. To better understand the distribution of stress generated by occlusal loading, the situation of the enamel in various 3D virtual models was presented. 14 scenarios for the occlusal loading of the virtual models of the upper first premolar were obtained and the areas with the highest concentration of stress were emphasized. Results: In the model with the tooth intact, stress values were higher than the admissible ones in the simulation of the excessive vertical loading, normal horizontal loading and excessive horizontal loading. Stress was found in the buccal cusp area and in the cervical area, mainly on the buccal side of the tooth. In the models with horizontal occlusal tooth wear, stress values were higher than the admissible ones in the simulation of the excessive vertical loading. Stress was found in the cervical area. In the models with oblique occlusal tooth wear, stress values were higher than the admissible ones in the simulation of the normal and excessive horizontal loading. Stress was found mainly in cervical area, on the buccal side of the tooth. Conclusions: The most harmful loads were the heavy vertical ones and the horizontal ones, no matter the magnitude. Keywords: Tooth wear; Finite Element Analysis; Stress, Non-Carious Cervical Lesions.
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Immediate/early radiological findings following transcrestal sinus augmentation using a minimally invasive implant device

Augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor followed by simultaneous or delayed placement of dental implants is a well-established technique for implant-supported rehabilitation of the partially or completely edentulous patient [1-15]. Few studies documented a patient’s perception of recovery after sinus-floor augmentation [16]. The average patient should expect recovery within 5 days. […]

Liat Chaushu, Hadar Better, Joseph Nissan, Samuel Porphirio Xavier, Adi Lorean, Gavriel Chaushu


(abstract) Introduction: Description of the immediate/early (up to one week) cone beam tomo-graphic findings following maxillary sinus augmentation using a minimally invasive implant device. Methodology: A self-tapping endosseous dental implant containing an internal channel that allows the introduction of liquids through the implant body and into the maxillary sinus was used for sinus augmentation. A periapical radiography was performed at the end of the procedure. For those cases where the periapical radio-graph could not demonstrate a clear postoperative result, a cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) was performed at the end of the procedure. When a CBCT device was not available an early CBCT was performed within 1 week. Twenty immediate/early postoperative CBCT’s were retrospectively evaluated for descriptive purposes. Results: 25 immediate postoperative CBCT’s were reviewed. The following radiological pheno-mena were noted and described – the postoperative appearance of the Schneiderian membrane; grafting material; new generated bone volume. Conclusion: Dental CBCT should be the gold standard for immediate/early postoperative imaging, following transcrestal sinus augmentation using a minimally invasive implant device, to docu-ment post grafting conditions and allow early intervention in failures. Keywords: Dental; Oral Surgical Procedures; Preprosthetic; Radiography; Sinus Floor Augmentation.   | (read pdf) |




Unclarities about articaine: efficacy and the risk of paresthesia

Articaine is an amide dental local anesthetic, synthesized in 1969 in Germany. It was specifically developed for dental use and got its approval for clinical use in countries all over the world in the years to follow. It became increasingly popular and is now the second most used local anesthetic in dentistry. Annually, approximately 600,000,000 cartridges are manufactured [1][…]

Nicolas de Ridder, Constantinus Politis


(abstract) Background: Articaine is a very popular local anesthetic in dentistry. A lot of claims have been made about articaine over the years, both positive and negative. Many clinicians claim articaine is superior to lidocaine. However, since a study in 1995 claiming an increased risk of paresthesia, there has been debate about whether this is true or not. Objective: To review the current literature to clarify the current ambiguities about the possible superior efficacy and the alleged higher risk of paresthesia. Data sources: As a basis, a handbook on local anesthesia was read, as well as its references to the topics of interest. Afterward, the literature was searched for publications about both the efficacy and the risk of paresthesia from 1990 to 2019. Study selection: Articles about the efficacy with clear data and minimal risk of bias were selected. For paresthesia, the original articles were selected as well as more recent reviews highlighting the flaws in the first studies. Data extraction: Information about the efficacy and the possible superiority of articaine compared to lidocaine was extracted. For paresthesia, the most important historical publications were reviewed and more recent reviews were evaluated. Data synthesis: These data were synthesized in an overview consisting of two parts. First, the properties of articaine were review and what was learned about the efficacy of articaine in relation to other local anesthetics was discussed. Secondly, an overview of the history of paresthesia was given and the flaws and unclarities were highlighted. Keywords: Articaine; Epinephrine; Efficacy; Paresthesia; Dentistry.  | (read pdf) |


Stability of skeletal class III malocclusion after orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Moderate to severe skeletal class III patients often require a combined orthodontic and surgical approach for treatment. It has been reported that skeletal class III malocclusion is the most frequent deformity corrected by combined orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment [1-4]. However, bimaxillary surgery has gradually become more popular to correct class III malocclusion [5-7] […]

Abdolreza Jamilian, Ludovica Nucci, Ali Fateh, Mitra Toliat, Alireza Darnahal, Madi Alassadi, Chin Wei Wang


(abstract) Background: Relapse is one of the major concerns in the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. Objective: The purpose of this systemic review was to evaluate the degree of relapse on skeletal class III patients who received bimaxillary surgery or mandibular setback with orthodontic treatment. Data Sources: A search of the literature was performed in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar Beta, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Study Selection: Out of the 165 articles identified, 73 studies were obtained, once duplicated articles were excluded. Then, 40 other records were excluded due to titles and abstracts, and 20 were removed for not fulfilling exclusion/inclusion criteria. 11 studies met the final inclusion criteria. Some cephalometric data during T1–T2–T3 were measured. Data Extraction: SNA did not have any significant changes within less than 2 years but it increased significantly after 2 years. SNB did not have any significant changes in more than 2 years’ follow-up, while it rose significantly in less than 2 years. Overjet decreased significantly after 2 years but not earlier than this duration. Overbite intensified significantly in more than 2 years and not earlier. Data Synthesis: SNA and overbite increased significantly after 2 years. SNB increased significantly before 2 years and did not have any changes after it. Overjet was significantly reduced after 2 years. Keywords: Class III; Skeletal Class III; Skeletal and Dental Changes; Stability; Bimaxillary Surgery or Mandibular Setback; Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  | (read pdf) |



The gold standard for detecting buried dental implants – RomiPointerTM Implant Detector of Romidan Ltd., Israel

The device detecting dental implants is a precise instrument that uses advanced technology, with an ergonomic design, easy to use and accessible, offering a non-invasive alternative to the exploratory mucoperiosteal flaps and retroalveolar radiographs, useful to qualified dental staff, implantologists and general practitioners working with dental implants. The dental implant detector acts as a vibration generator, the LC electronic Colpitts type of feedback system that uses the metal resonant circuit to verify the location of the implants[…]

Florin-Eugen Constantinescu
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