STOMATOLOGY EDU JOURNAL

ISSN(print) 2360-2406; ISSN(on-line) 2502-0285; ISSN-L 2360-2406

PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Aims: To analyze frequency distribution of prosthetic reconstructions and therapeutic modalities with implant-supported reconstructions (ISRs) applied in a university graduate program. Methodology: Data of implant placement and related ISR were obtained from treatment plans, surgical protocols and patients’ charts, covering the 2005 to 2010 time period. Loading time, implant survival and type of ISR, i.e. fixed (single crown (SC), short-span fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), full-arch FDP (IB)) and removable ISR (denture with ball attachments (RDP), bar-supported overdenture (Bar-IOD)) were determined and analyzed with descriptive statistical methods. Results: Data of 819 patients with a mean age of 62.3 ± 11.6 years were available. Graduate students placed 2337 implants and 1133 related ISRs were fabricated. The observation time ranged from 1 to 8 years (mean 4.7 ± 1.8). The number of implants supporting fixed and removable ISRs was 1053 (45.1%) and 1284 (54.9%), respectively. The percentage distribution of implants per ISRs exhibited 337/337 SCs (14.4%), 422/190 FDPs (18.1%), 294/54 IBs (12.6%), 374/198 RDPs (16.0%) and 910/354 Bar-IODs (38.9%). Thirty-one implants were lost (12 before and 19 after loading) resulting in an 8-year cumulative survival rate of 98.6% without difference between implants of different groups (fixed vs. removable ISRs, splinted vs. non-splinted ISRs, no GBR/SFE vs. GBR/SFE, upper vs. lower jaw). Conclusions: A broad variety of fixed and removable implant supported prostheses for partially and completely edentulous patients was identified. Although these data represent learning curves for graduate students working under supervision, implant survival was successful in a short-term range. Keywords: implant-dentistry, graduate training, implant survival, prosthetic reconstructions, CAD/CAM. ABSTRACT Received: July 12, 2016 Accepted: July 14, 2016 Available online: August 19, 2016 Cite this article: Gebistorf MC, Bader CL, Takeichi T, Katsoulis J. Prosthetic reconstructions and referring implant survival in a postgraduate program: A retrospective study. Stoma Edu J. 2016;3(2):223-234. Meret Cécile Gebistorf1,2a, Christina Laura Bader2b, Takuro Takeichi3,4c, Joannis Katsoulis2,4,5d* 1 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland 2 Former Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland 3 Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan 4 Department of Preventive and Restorative Sciences, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA 5 Department of Reconstructive Dentistry and Gerodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland a DMD, Postgraduate Student b DMD, Postgraduate Student c DDS, Lecture (Aichi Gakuin University), Adjunct associate professor (University of Pennsylvania) d DMD, PhD, MAS, Associate Professor (University of Bern), Adjunct Associate Professor (University of Pennsylvania) *Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Joannis Katsoulis, DMD, PhD, MAS Department of Reconstructive Dentistry and Gerodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland Tel: +41.31.632.25.86, Fax: +41.31.632.49.33, e-mail: joannis.katsoulis@zmk.unibe.ch 1. Introduction Implant dentistry has become an integral part of clinical practice. Already in the early nineties when basic research in osseointegration and clinical application of implants grew rapidly, clinicians and university educators discussed the teaching of implantology for undergraduate students and for postgraduate trainings1.At this time the lack of trained and qualified teachers appeared to be a limitation when implantology should be introduced in university curricula2. However, gradually implant restorations were included into general and specialist dental practice3. Nevertheless, the topic of undergraduate training was taken up again only after the year 2000 and is currently being discussed worldwide. Surveys and reviews that gathered data from dental schools in Northern America and less frequently in Europe revealed that implant dentistry has been incorporated to a high percentage into the undergraduate training4-11. Teaching implant dentistry often focused on the surgical aspects 224 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) and was performed by specialists in oral surgery, maxillofacial surgery and by periodontists12 while prosthdodontists took an active role if patients were to be prosthetically restored with implants13. Such publications demonstrate the clear trend toward teaching implantology at universities and dental schools, otherwise they illustrate that there remain great variations how education in implant dentistry is provided for undergraduate students. In some schools teaching consists either exclusively in lecture-based theory or they include Typodont model and laboratory training while clinical interaction with patients and delivering implant supported restorations is not yet the standard. Implant placement by students is rarely reported and electively performed6, however the students attend the surgical procedures as clinical observers4. Today, local and international courses for general practitioners and specialists, master programs offered by dental schools and dental associations or by private organizers are announced worldwide and various specialty degrees and diplomas can be obtained. Furthermore, courses are often sponsored by the industry14. Global standards for quality criteria or competency levels of such education and training programs are not available. The International Team for Implantology (ITI) published a grading system that classifies the surgical and prosthodontic procedures into straightforward, advanced, complex (SAC)15. Consensus conferences were also held and attempts made to establish teaching goals and to look at further needs and development in implant training. They summarize to what extent knowledge should be provided, and the level of skills that should be reached by undergraduate and postgraduate students10,16-18. Guidelines were proposed by various dental associations such as the American Academy of Implant Dentistry1. In this context, the aim of this retrospective study was to analyze frequency distribution of implantsupported prosthetic reconstructions and referred implant survival of implants placed from graduate students in a university training program. 2. Methodology 2.1. Admission to the program A structured postgraduate program in prosthodontics and implant dentistry was established at the former Department of Prosthodontics, University of Bern, Switzerland. This comprehensive curriculum comprises prosthetic therapy and implant-surgery in one University clinic during a minimum of 3 years. The admission criteria for the program are that the graduate students have completed firstly a two yaer-clinical training in general dentistry, which includes training in oral surgery and secondly a doctoral thesis as general dentist (Dr. med. dent.). The focus was on problem based teaching and evidence-based, patient-centered comprehensive treatment. Furthermore, a scientific article had to be published by the graduate student or the university must have accepted another thesis. During the entire curriculum period the graduate students also took also an active role in theoretical teaching, planning sessions and clinical training of the undergraduate students in Prosthodontics, which comprised straightforward implant reconstructions such as mandibular overdentures, single crowns and short span fixed dental prosthesis. Such teaching assignment broadened their experience and helped to develop skills in social behavior and attitudes toward students, patients and teachers. 2.2. Study material Prosthetic patients were consecutively admitted for treatment in the course of this postgraduate curriculum. They signed an informed consent willing to be treated by graduate students. This Figure 1. Distribution of implants placed in the maxilla and the mandible PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 225 survey was part of a quality control assessment of the dental consultation. The data were based on an abstraction of the oral examinations and were collected strictly anonymously. The study respected the regulations of the Helsinki Declaration from 1975 and was performed in accordance with the STROBE statements. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the University of Bern School of Dental Medicine Institutional Ethical Committee. The progress of the patients’ treatment was regularly supervised and documented in case presentations either live chairside or with adequate digital presentations. The case presentations followed the PICO structure19,20, meaning that decision making and implant therapy should be based on the best evidence available and meet the patients’ needs. The students performed the implant surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation under the guidance and supervision of the director and staff specialists of the Department. Detailed records and photographs were obtained from all patients during the entire treatment period. When the treatment was completed all patients were included in a well-organized maintenance program. The goal of the 3-year training curriculum was to reach a competency level of grade A (advanced) for surgical and prosthodontic procedures according to the ITI treatment guide. Complex treatments and invasive approaches that were not frequently encountered were performed by the supervisors and assisted by the students. 2.3. Patient management The patients involved in the graduate curriculum were partially dentate or edentulous in one or both jaws. They often presented failures of old reconstructions and teeth not worth being maintained. They had a different background (recall, prevention, etc.) and the reasons for tooth loss were long in the past. The patient management followed a strict protocol as described below: • The patient’s chief complaint and demands were assessed. • The records of the patient’s history comprised social aspects, general health, special habits (smoking, bruxism, alcohol and drug abuse) and dental history. Records on medications were kept and the family physician was contacted, if necessary. • Clinical examination and dental / oral diagnosis: It included the periodontal status, caries, tooth wear and in single case a dietary protocol by the patient, occlusal analysis and assessment of the vertical dimension, functional analysis of temporomandibular joints (TMJ), single radiographs, status of endodontically treated teeth, pathologies of oral mucosa or pathological findings on the panoramic radiography, atrophic jaw (areas), evaluation of old reconstructions, aesthetic analysis (facial morphology, smile line, gummy smile, gingival border and papillae, tooth axis, lip closure and biotype of gingiva). Implants in maxilla Implants in mandible Total implants Gender Male 556 575 1131 (48.4%) Female 569 637 1206 (51.6%) Dental status Partially dentate 527 421 948 (40.6%) Edentulous 598 791 1389 (59.4%) Total 1125 (48.1%) 1212 (51.9%) 2337 (100%) Table 1. Number of implants according to the gender and the dental status Table 2. Number of implants according to the type of ISR performed Type of ISR Maxilla Implants / ISRs Mandible Implants / ISRs Total Implants / ISRs Lost implants preload; loaded Fixed SC* 180* / 180 157* / 157 337 (14.4%)* / 337 1; 6 FDP 207 / 92 215 / 98 422 (18.1%) / 190 1; 3 IB 228 / 39 66 / 15 294 (12.8%) / 54 1; 2 Removable RDP* 236* / 121 138* / 77 374 (16.0%)* / 198 1; 3 Bar-IOD 274 / 66 636 / 288 910 (38.9%) / 354 8; 5 Total 1125 / 498 1212 / 635 2337 (100%) / 1133 12; 19 * non-splinted implants from SCs and RDP (total 711, 30.4%) ISR: Implant supported reconstruction SC: Single crown FDP: short-span fixed dental prosthesis IB: Full-arch FDP (Implant bridge) RDP: Removable dental prosthesis IOD: Implant-Overdenture PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 226 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) • Planning: It was based on the clinical examination and comprised analysis of casts mounted with a face-bow, a prosthetic tooth setup simulating the prospective treatment outcome, evaluation of the best treatment plan based on objective criteria and possible modification of the plan which reflect the patients’ benefit and demands, cost estimate, case presentation and establishing of the final procedures, and a virtual three-dimensional implant planning with specific software program. • Pretreatment phase: It consisted in a smoking cessation protocol, periodontal treatment, fillings, endodontic treatment, tooth extraction and tooth setup, mockup, provisional prostheses including splints, reevaluation of the pretreatment, fabrication of radiographic splints and virtual implant placement with special computer software, fabrication of surgical splints. Based on proper treatment planning and case presentation the permission by the director of the department was obtained to perform implant surgery. • Implant surgery: In the beginning the graduate students assisted implant surgery taking the role of the nurse and eventually performed all types of surgery themselves under guidance. According to the SAC criteria this included standard implant placement and eventually more complex surgery, such as staged or simultaneous local guided bone regeneration (GBR), sinus floor elevation (SFE) with transcrestal access or with lateral fenestration, submerged healing, in selected cases immediate implants or immediate loading, small connective tissue grafts, reevaluation of surgery and case presentation. The Nobel Replace implant system (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) was used. • Prosthetic phase: This phase consisted in the reevaluation of the provisional prostheses and modifications needed for the final prostheses, impression taking with individual trays, bite registration, final setup with orientation index and try-in session, case presentation, delivery of finale prosthesis and case presentation. The implant-supported reconstructions (ISRs) consisted of fixed (single crown (SC), short-span fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), fullarch FDP (IB)) and removable ISR (denture with ball attachments (RDP), bar-supported overdenture (Bar-IOD)). The fixed ISRs were either cement retained on an abutment or screw retained directly to the implant. • Maintenance: The maintenance care program comprised at least one scheduled visit per year and monitoring of the oral hygiene by the dental hygienist. It was carried out by the graduate students during their training period. Handling of complications was equally part of the educational program since patients of the maintenance care program who exhibited any kind of problem were attributed to the trainees during their curriculum period. 2.4. Prosthesis design and materials At the beginning of the time period covered by the present study standard technologies i.e. porcelain fused to metal were applied for fabricating of SCs and FDPs. Removable prostheses were connected to soldered rigid gold bars, using prefabricated elements as provided by the manufacturer, less Figure 2. The implant survival was not significantly different for the implants supporting the different prosthetic reconstructions PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 227 frequently to ball anchors and locators. Gradually the computer-aided-design/computer-assistedmanufacturing (CAD/CAM) fabrication for prosthesis frameworks and bars was introduced and recently became the prevalent technology21. Most frequently the Procera system (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) was used for titanium and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) reconstructions, followed by Zeno and Lava technology. Subsequently, all bars were milled from homogenous block of titanium grade IV. Milled titanium was also an option for large frameworks of full-arch IBs. In parallel, ZrO2 became the preferred material for all types of fixed prostheses. A close cooperation with laboratory technicians, who were trained and willing to apply modern CAD/CAM techniques, was established. All reconstructions were intended to be screw retained, directly from the implant shoulder without the interposition of an abutment. Thus, optimum implant planning and surgery was required, with proper alignment of the implant axis. 2.5. Data Collection The present study material covers the data collection of these patients and related treatment, performed during the time period from January 2005 to December 2010. All necessary information was available from the patients’ documentation that had to be kept by the graduate students. Additionally all data on implants, surgery procedures and prostheses were registered in a separate excel file. The data collection of the present study was based on the treatment plans, surgical protocols and daily records in the patients’ charts during the treatment phase and the maintenance care period. The patients’ age and gender, date of implant placement, implant location and loading time, implant survival, and type of ISR were determined. 2.6. Statistical analysis The primary outcome was implant survival. The secondary outcome was the type of ISR performed and in particular the specific design and type of material used for the prosthetic reconstruction. Descriptive statistics included mean values, standard deviation (SD) and proportional analysis. A life table analysis was performed and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The significance level was 5%. The SPSS software (SPSS 18.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analysis and graphical illustrations. Type of ISR Implants in 2005 Implants in 2006 Implants in 2007 Implants in 2008 Implants in 2009 Implants in 2010 Total implants Total fixed ISR 145 233 205 158 113 199 1053 CAD/CAM ISR ZrO2 54 (37%) 34 (15%) 60 (29%) 34 (22%) 65 (58%) 68 (34%) 315 (30%) Total removable ISR 208 247 225 207 213 184 1284 CAD/CAM bar titanium 15 (7%) 26 (11%) 87 (39%) 95 (46%) 123 (58%) 117 (64%) 462 (36%) Table 3. Number of implants supporting CAD/CAM fabricated ISRs made from zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and titanium CAD/CAM: computer-aided-design/computer-assisted-manufacturing ZrO2: zirconium dioxide ISR: implant supported reconstruction Observation period (year) Implants at risk (N) Implant drop-outs (N) Implant failures (N) Interval survival (%) Cumulative survival (%) Preload 2337 0 12 99.49 99.49 0-1 2325 0 9 99.61 99.10 1-2 2316 294 7 99.70 98.80 2-3 2015 343 1 99.95 98.75 3-4 1671 354 2 99.88 98.63 4-5 1315 410 0 100.00 98.63 5-6 905 464 0 100.00 98.63 6-7 441 379 0 100.00 98.63 7-8 62 59 0 100.00 98.63 8-9 3 3 0 100.00 98.63 Table 4. Life table analysis reporting on the totally 31 implant failures PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 228 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) 3. Results 3.1. Number of patients Data of 819 patients, 420 women and 399 men were available. The mean age at the time of implant placement was 62.3 ± 11.6 years. 507 patients (62%) were > 60 years old. The observation time ranged from 1 to 8 years (mean 4.7 ± 1.8 years). Altogether 2337 implants were placed and 1133 related ISRs fabricated during the 6 years of implant placement. The average number of implants per patient was 2.9. 3.2. Number of implants The distribution of the implants within the jaws was equal in the maxilla and mandible with exception of the canine FDI-positions 43 and 33 which was 6 times higher (Fig. 1). Partially dentate patients received totally 948 implants (40.6%) compared to 1389 (59.4%) in the edentulous ones (Table 1). The graduate students themselves placed 80% of the implants under guidance and supervision in the context of their education program. 10% of these implants were inserted in patients that were selected for the training in the undergraduate student course. The remaining 20% of the implants were placed by the program director and instructors while the graduate-students took the role of the assistant nurse. 3.3. Number of reconstructions The number of implants supporting fixed and removable ISR was 1053 (45.1%) and 1284 (54.9%), respectively. The percentage distribution of implants per ISR exhibited 337/337 SCs (14.4%), 422/190 FDPs (18.1%), 294/54 IBs (12.6%), 374/198 RDPs (16.0%) and 910/354 Bar-IODs (38.9%) (Table 2). While the absolute and relative number of CAD/ CAM fabricated removable ISR increased from 7% to 64%, the proportion of ZrO2-based fixed ISR varied between 15% and 55% without a clear trend during the observation time (Table 3). 3.4. Implant survival Thirty-one implants were lost resulting in a cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 98.6% after 8 years. Twelve implants failed before loading while 19 implants were lost 1 to 4 years after loading (Table 4). Totally 12 implants in 8 patients were lost before functional loading. These patients were between 51 and 79 years old, all non-smokers and without significant general health problems. Eight (of 12) implants were located in the mandible (7 interforaminally, one at FDI position 36). One woman suffered from chronic osteoporosis that was treated with an oral bisphosphonate (Fosamax 10mg/day, MSD Merck Sharp & Dohme AG, Luzern, Switzerland) and showed no problems after replacement of the failed implant. Another female lost the first three interforaminally positioned implant and the second two implants, as well. She had no risk factors and was finally treated with a complete lower denture without implants. Out of a total of 19 implants lost after functional loading 15 implants were located in the maxilla. Detailed information about the restorations and the patients are shown in Table 5. No statistically significant difference was observed for the survival rates between the prosthetic reconstructions (Table 2, Fig. 2). Further analysis revealed no difference comparing fixed vs. removable ISRs, implants with vs. without GBR or SFE, splinted vs. non-splinted ISRs and ISRs in the upper vs. lower jaw (Fig. 3). Figure 3. The implant survival was not significantly different between the upper and lower jaw PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 229 Patient Gender Age (Years) General health status (Medication) Implant type, diameter / length (mm) position Implant (FDA) GBA SFE Immediate implant placement Immediate load ISR Months in situ 1 Male 64 Pneumonia 3 weeks after implant surgery NRG, 10 / 4.3 12 Yes No No No Bar-IOD 3 Complication: Periimplantitis (8 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus palatal), mild pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, general risk factors? / Therapy: explantation, relining of IOD. 2 Female 49 Smoker (25 pack years) NRG, 13 / 3.5 34 Yes No No Yes SC 4 Complication: slightly mobile cement-retained SC, no bone loss, no mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload while implant was loaded immediately? / Therapy: explantation and new implant after 5 months incl. GBR, new SC. 3 Male 84 Nephritis, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, tuberculosis (1944 – 1947), daily alcohol consumption, angina pectoris (2008) NRG, 10 / 4.3 16 Yes Yes No No SC 5 Complication: Periimplantitis (7 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, distal pus), no pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, general risk factors? / Therapy: explantation. 4 Female 58 Healthy NRG, 13 / 4.3 36 Yes No Yes No SC 7 NRG, 13 / 3.5 14 No No Yes No SC 21 36: Complication: mobile SC / implant fracture 2mm apically of shoulder, no crestal bone loss, slight mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: screw loosening, patient missed recal, i.e. was abroad > 1 year / Therapy: explantation and new implant immediately, new SC after osseointegration. 14: Complication: Periimplantitis (10 mm crestal bone loss distal, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis / Therapy: explantation and new restoration 15-x. 5 Female 50 Smoker (25 pack years), weekly cannabis consumption, status after tx of colon and uterus carcinoma, rheumatism, hepatitis C NRG, 10 / 4.3 25 Yes Yes No No Bar-IOD 7 Complication: Periimplantitis (8 mm crestal bone loss mesial and distal, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, general risk factors? / Therapy: explantation and bar shortened, relining of IOD 6 Female 60 Smoker (40 pack years), chronic depression, osteoporosis NRG, 13 / 4.3 15 Yes Yes No No SC 10 Complication: Periimplantitis (7 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, general risk factors? / Therapy: explantation. 7 Male 60 Smoker (25 pack years – stopped smoking before implant surgery) NRG, 13 / 3.5 24 Yes No No No Ball abutment / IOD 11 Table 4. 19 late implants failures occurred in 16 patients after a loading time of 3 to 46 months. Implant removal (explantation) was performed in local anesthesia and a local disinfection was performed for 2 weeks PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 230 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) Complication: slightly mobile implant, circumferential 0.5mm bone loss, slight mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload? general risk factor? / Therapy: explantation and relining of RDP. 8 Male 65 Hypertension NRG, 13 / 3.5 23 Yes (autogenous bone) No No No Locator abutment / IOD 12 NRG, 13 / 3.5 13 Yes (autogenous bone) No No No Locator abutment / IOD 12 13: Complication: mobile locator / implant fracture 7mm apical to shoulder, no crestal bone loss, slight mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: overload, bruxism? / Therapy: explantation, relining of IOD. 23: Complication: slightly mobile locator, circumferential 0.5mm bone loss, slight mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload, bruxism? / Therapy: explantation, relining of IOD. 9 Male 65 Status after heart surgery NRG, 13 / 4.3 46 Yes No No No FDP 13 Complication: Periimplantitis (9 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), no pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis / Therapy: explantation and shortening of cement-retained FDP 44-x . 10 Male 42 Smoker 5 cigarettes/ day Chronic periodontitis NRG, 13 / 4.3 35 No No No No SC 15 Complication: Periimplantitis (6 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), no pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, local risk factors? / Therapy: explantation and new implant after 5 months incl. GBR, new SC. 11 Male 53 Meliodisis, Diabetes type II, heart operation NRG, 10 / 4.3 25 Yes No No No Bar-IOD 23 Complication: IOD tooth fracture region 23, radiographic 5mm crestal bone loss mesial and distal, no inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload? / Therapy: explantation and new implant 3 months after removal, bar and IOD adaptation. 12 Male 77 Chronic depression, Hypertension, Smoker (daily pipe smoker – stopped before implant surgery) NRG, 10 / 4.3 16 Yes Yes No No FDP 24 NRG, 13 / 3.5 14 Yes No No No FDP 24 Complication: slightly mobile FDP 16×14, circumferential 0.5mm bone loss, no mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload? (depression and bruxism after colon-carcinoma surgery in 2010 / Therapy: explantation. 13 Male 66 Healthy NRG, 13 / 3.5 14 No No No No SC 32 Complication: Periimplantitis (7 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis / Therapy: explantation. 14 Male 56 Chronic periodontitis, Smoker (30 pack years) NRG, 10 / 4.3 14 No Yes No No SC 37 Complication: Periimplantitis (6 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, local risk factor? / Therapy: explantation. PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 231 4. Discussion The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze frequency distribution of implant-supported prosthetic reconstructions and referred implant survival of implants placed from graduate students in a university training program. A broad variety of fixed and removable ISRs for partially and completely edentulous patients was identified. Although these data represent learning curves for graduate students working under supervision, implant survival was successful in a short-term range. The overall implant CSR of 98.6% after 8 years is comparable to other studies where implants where placed by novice operators that were supervised by experts during implant placement. In a recent study22 the survival rate of 49 implants and referring SC that were placed and fabricated by undergraduate students was 94% after 10 years of loading. The authors concluded that it is acceptable to include implant therapy in the clinical undergraduate dental curriculum, provided the focus remains on straightforward cases with substantial supervision by trained dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This teaching situation is comparable to the setting in the present study. However, the 5-year cumulative survival rate of the implants was considerably higher with 98.6%. A learning curve has to be considered but cannot be specified for the single students. Maxillary implants were slightly less successful, as it is often reported from clinical studies. Some specific treatment outcomes are also represented by various clinical studies performed during the same time period, based on the same study material23-29. Since the present data were collected within a prosthodontic department the number of edentulous jaws that were included in the data collection is relatively high. This is in contrast to a study performed in a department for oral surgery where the most frequent reconstruction performed was an implant supported SC30. This difference is also represented by the average number of implants per patient of 1.5 vs. 2.9 in the present study. Another study investigated the 12-months clinical outcome of immediate implants placed by novice operators showing that the success rate was high and predictable provided there were routine school procedures and supervision from experienced surgeons31. The clinical studies available in the literature reporting on success rate of implants placed by graduate students include only a small number of implants. At the Prosthodontic Department of the University of Washington a number of 273 implants was observed during at least 5 years and showed a comparable survival rate of 96.3%32. At the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry a total of 415 patients with 963 implants were interviewed. The implant survival rate was 97%, and 88% of the implants were considered successful as determined by patient-centred criteria33. These results suggest that work standardization (in the form of specific treatment protocols) and the use of a formal, incremental learning system can result in positive patient outcomes. Clinical outcomes should be monitored in academic dental settings as part of the clinical process improvement, and these outcomes can provide a means of assessing the effectiveness of the training program. So far little information was provided in the literature on the treatment outcomes of implant- 15 Male 54 Smoker (40 pack years), daily alcohol consumption (one beer), angina pectoris, hypertension, reflux disease NRG, 10 / 4.3 24 No No No Yes Bar-IOD 38 Complication: at 1.5 year recall mild periimplantitis, at 3 years additional circumferential 0.5mm bone loss, mild mucosal inflammation, no pus, no pain / Etiology: Overload and periimplantitis / Therapy: explantation. 16 Male 55 Smoker (36 pack years) NRG, 13 / 3.5 24 Yes No No No Bar-IOD 46 Complication: Periimplantitis (8 mm crestal bone loss distal and mesial, pus), occasional pain; Etiology: Periimplantitis, local risk factor? / Therapy: : explantation and bar shortened, relining of IOD. GBA: Guided Bone Augmentation, i.e. simultaneous buccal augmentation with Bio-Oss / particulated autogenous bone and Bio-Gide membrane (Geistlich, Wolhusen, Switzerland) SFE: Sinus Floor Elevation NRG: NobelReplace Tapered Groovy Implant (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) ISR: Implant supported reconstruction SC: Single crown FDP: short-span fixed dental prosthesis IB: Full-arch FDP (Implant bridge) RDP: Removable dental prosthesis IOD: Implant-Overdenture PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 232 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) placed prosthodontic graduate training curricula. As mentioned in the introduction many articles show clear trends that implant dentistry becomes integrated worldwide in the undergraduate training of dental students. Implant dentistry knowledge, however, is mostly a basic theoretical overview on implants. It appears that if the undergraduate students get in touch with implant dentistry they are more likely to incorporate implant treatment in their practice34. A small survey restricted to a local area revealed that particularly male general practitioners felt the need to obtain training in implant dentistry35. Today young dentists will meet patients who will ask for implant treatment7 and who have already all kind of information on implants. In this respect, it seems important that in-depth knowledge is provided and the graduate students must achieve a good level of skills in well structured implant programs. A recent survey conducted in the States revealed that today many postgraduate prosthodontic curricula allow students to perform implant surgery in their advanced education program36. The answers indicate that up to 50% of students judged their implant-surgery skills on a level of good competence while others felt the need of more training to reach a better level of competence. One study showed that even a short but intense and closely supervised training of 4 sessions 3 days each may significantly improve surgical skills and as a result also implant survival37. Postgraduate implant programs in University settings often underscore the multidisciplinary aspect of implant dentistry, as there are oral or maxillofacial surgery, prosthodontics and periodontology. With regard to implants, the specialty training programs subsequently focused on their own, specific knowledge and skills, and several specialists perform the implant treatment. Therefore, the comprehensive character of implant dentistry does not become sufficiently visible. In general, the intent of oral surgery is the removal of a pathological process and treatment of dental or oral diseases. Although implant placement is a surgical procedure, as well, its result is not the pathology but the prosthetic rehabilitation after tooth loss. The implant itself is a tool used to enable, improve and perform prosthetic treatment. Thus, implant dentistry must be prosthetically centered and driven, with regard to analysis, planning and the final outcome. Already in the nineties some authors emphasized the importance of prosthodontics training with regard to implant therapy1,2. The chewing function, phonetics and esthetics are the crucial aspects oft implant treatment. The term „backward planning“ was created and this should become the standard in any implant treatment, particularly for full mouth rehabilitation. Accordingly, a comprehensive prosthetic training including implant placement and implant restoration appears to be the most effective approach to a broad understanding of the potential and limitations in implant rehabilitation. The data of the present study show that the students were involved in the whole broad, therapeutic spectrum of implant dentistry, including the surgical and prosthodontic part as well as maintenance care. Thus, they reached full competence level of grade A (advanced) for surgery and prosthetics, while level C (complex) can be practiced under close supervision, particularly with regard to the surgical techniques. At the end of the training curriculum it is expected that the students are able to properly judge their own knowledge and skills and to adhere to strict patient selection criteria. Furthermore, the use of CAD/CAM technology for implant supported fixed and removable reconstructions helped to standardize the fabrication workflow and minimize inaccuracies due to manual errors. As reported in another investigation, the specific analysis revealed a predictable outcome of the implant reconstructions with improvements for the digital workflow38. In the current competitive and fast developing market of implantology, which is often business driven, it becomes essential that high quality education and treatment is guaranteed. Therefore, theoretical knowledge and training of clinical skills must be an integral part of well-structured educational programs in comprehensive implant dentistry to reach the required competence and to maintain a high standard of care39. The majority of articles on implant curricula deal with undergraduate education while information on specialty training for young dentists and general practitioners is somehow confusing and less clear. If implant teaching in University curricula is described, a variety of terms are applied, such as: undergraduate, predoctoral, graduate, postgraduate or residency and specialty training, advanced education or master program. It appears that there is no consensus and common use of these terms – except with regard to undergraduate education, which would clearly address the degree of training and specify the level competence. Furthermore, two universities recently reported on a predoctoral implant program where selected students placed a series of implants themselves. While the students highly benefited from this experience by improving their understanding of the connection between surgical implant placement and definitive prosthodontics reconstruction, their interest for a postgraduate implant program to improve theoretical and clinical skills became more intense40. The placement of implants by undergraduate students as part of an implant program would require significant efforts in theoretical education, pre-clinical laboratory training and clinical treatment. However, it has been demonstrated that this approach may result in acceptable clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction and positive student perception41. PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 233 REFERENCES 1. Evasic RW. Training for implant dentistry: what are the requirements? Dent Today. 1990;9(2):40, 43-45. 2. Schnitman PA. Education in implant dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc. 1990;121(3):330, 332. 3. Henry P, Klineberg I. A review of educational developments with Brånemark osseointegrated oral implants in Australia and New Zealand 1992-1994. Part II: Undergraduate, and postgraduate implant education in Australian and New Zealand dental schools. Aust Prosthodont J. 1995;9 Suppl:55-59. 4. Afsharzand Z, Lim MV, Rashedi B, Petropoulos VC. Predoctoral implant dentistry curriculum survey: European dental schools. Eur J Dent Educ. 2005 Feb;9(1):37-45. 5. Kroeplin BS, Strub JR. Implant dentistry curriculum in undergraduate education: part 1-a literature review. Int J Prosthodont. 2011;24(3):221-234. 6. Kroeplin BS, Strub JR. Implant dentistry curriculum in undergraduate education: part 2-program at the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany. Int J Prosthodont. 2011;24(6):544-556. 7. Addy LD, Lynch CD, Locke M, Watts A, Gilmour AS. The teaching of implant dentistry in undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Br Dent J. 2008;205(11):609-614. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2008.1027. 8. De Bruyn H, Koole S, Mattheos N, Lang NP. A survey on undergraduate implant dentistry education in Europe. Eur J Dent Educ. 2009;13 Suppl 1:3-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00557.x. 9. McAndrew M, Eidtson WH, Pierre GC, Gillespie CC. Creating an objective structured teaching examination to evaluate a dental faculty development program. J Dent Educ. 2012;76(4):461- 471. 10. Mattheos N, Albrektsson T, Buser D, De Bruyn H, Donos N, Hjørting Hansen E, Lang NP, Sanz M, Nattestad A; 1st European ConsensusWorkshop in Implant Dentistry University Education. Teaching and assessment of implant dentistry in undergraduate and postgraduate education: a European consensus. Eur J Dent Educ. 2009;13 Suppl 1:11-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1600- 0579.2008.00556.x. 11. Atashrazm P, Vallaie N, Rahnema R, Ansari H, Shahab MP. Worldwide predoctoral dental implant curriculum survey. J Dent (Tehran). 2011;8(1):12-18. 12. Weintraub AM, Seckinger R, Berthold P, Weintraub GS. Predoctoral implant dentistry programs in US dental schools. J Prosthodont. 1995;4(2):116-121. 13. Lim MV, Afsharzand Z, Rashedi B, Petropoulos VC. Predoctoral implant education in U.S. dental schools. J Prosthodont. 2005;14(1):46-56. 14. Vasak C, Fiederer R, Watzek G. Current state of training for implant dentistry in Europe: a questionnaire-based survey. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18(5):following 668. 15. Buser D, Martin W, Belser UC. Optimizing esthetics for implant restorations in the anterior maxilla: anatomic and surgical considerations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19 Suppl:43-61. 16. Gurenlian JR, Meffert RM, Judy KW. Curriculum Guidelines in Implant Dentistry for Dental Hygiene Programs. Consensus Conference sponsored by the International Congress of Oral Implantologists, the American College of Oral Implantology, the American Society of Osseointegration, and the Association of Dental Implant Auxiliaries & Practice Management. Monterey, California, June 16, 1995. Implant Dent. 1995;4(3):162-164. 17. Petropoulos VC, Arbree NS, Tarnow D, Rethman M, Malmquist J, Valachovic R, Brunson WD, Alfano MC. Teaching implant dentistry in the predoctoral curriculum: a report from the ADEA Implant Workshop’s survey of deans. J Dent Educ. 2006;70(5):580-588. 18. Hicklin SP, Albrektsson T, Hämmerle CH; 1st European Consensus Workshop in Implant Dentistry University Education. Theoretical knowledge in implant dentistry for undergraduate students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2009;13 Suppl 1:25-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00553.x. 19. da Costa Santos CM, de Mattos Pimenta CA, Nobre MR. The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidence search. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2007;15(3):508-511. 20. Flemming K. Critical appraisal. 2. Searchable questions. NT Learn Curve. 1999;3(2):6-7. 21. Katsoulis J, Mericske-Stern R, Yates DM, Izutani N, Enkling N, Blatz MB. In vitro precision of fit of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing titanium and zirconium dioxide bars. Dent Mater. 2013;29(9):945-953. 22. Bonde MJ, Stokholm R, Isidor F, Schou S. Outcome of implantsupported single-tooth replacements performed by dental students. A 10-year clinical and radiographic retrospective study. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2010;3(1):37-46. 23. Avrampou M, Mericske-Stern R, Blatz MB, Katsoulis J. Virtual implant planning in the edentulous maxilla: criteria for decision making of prosthesis design. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013;24 Suppl A100:152-159. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02407.x. 24. Huber S, Rentsch-Kollàr A, Grogg F, Katsoulis J, Mericske R. A 1-year controlled clinical trial of immediate implants placed in fresh extraction sockets: stability measurements and crestal bone level changes. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012;14(4):491-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00294.x. 25. Hug S, Mantokoudis D, Mericske-Stern R. Clinical evaluation of 3 overdenture concepts with tooth roots and implants: 2-year results. Int J Prosthodont. 2006;19(3):236-243. 26. Katsoulis J, Avrampou M, Spycher C, Stipic M, Enkling N, Mericske-Stern R. Comparison of implant stability by means of resonance frequency analysis for flapless and conventionally inserted implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012;14(6):915-923. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00326.x. 27. Kaufmann R, Friedli M, Hug S, Mericske-Stern R. Removable dentures with implant support in strategic positions followed for up to 8 years. Int J Prosthodont. 2009;22(3):233-241; discussion 242. 28. Kollar A, Huber S, Mericske E, Mericske-Stern R. Zirconia for teeth and implants: a case series. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2008;28(5):479-487. 29. Rentsch-Kollar A, Huber S, Mericske-Stern R. Mandibular implant overdentures followed for over 10 years: patient compliance and prosthetic maintenance. Int J Prosthodont. 2010;23(2):91-98. 30. Bornstein MM, Halbritter S, Harnisch H, Weber HP, Buser D. A retrospective analysis of patients referred for implant placement to a specialty clinic: indications, surgical procedures, and early failures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23(6):1109-1116. 31. Vidal R, Greenwell H, Hill M, Papageorgakopoulos G, Scheetz JP. Success rate of immediate implants placed and restored by novice operators. Implant Dent. 2010;19(1):81-90. doi: 10.1097/ ID.0b013e3181bcd36b. 32. Chung WE, Rubenstein JE, Phillips KM, Raigrodski AJ. Outcomes assessment of patients treated with osseointegrated dental implants at the University of Washington Graduate Prosthodontic Program, 1988 to 2000. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24(5):927-935. 33. Al-Sabbagh M, Jenkins DW, de Leeuw R, Nihill P, Robinson FG, Thomas MV. Programmatic assessment of a university-based implant training program using patient-reported outcomes. J Dent Educ. 2014;78(11):1534-1541. 34. Huebner GR. Evaluation of a predoctoral implant curriculum: does such a program influence graduates’ practice patterns? Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2002;17(4):543-549. 35. Sutton F, Ellituv ZN, Seed R. A survey of self-perceived educational needs of general dental practitioners in the Merseyside region. Prim Dent Care. 2005;12(3):78-82. 5. Conclusions Within the limits of this retrospective study we conclude that a broad variety of fixed and removable implant supported prostheses for partially and completely edentulous patients was identified. Although these data represent learning curves for young graduate students working under supervision, implant survival was successful in a short-term range. Well-structured educational programs in comprehensive implant dentistry providing theoretical knowledge and clinical skills may enhance a high standard of maintenance care and a high treatment outcome quality in the current competitive market of implantology. Acknowledgements The contributions of the postgraduate students and the supervisors are greatly acknowledged. The authors report no conflict of interest. PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY 234 STOMA.EDUJ (2016) 3 (2) 36. Yuan JC, Lee DJ, Knoernschild KL, Campbell SD, Sukotjo C. Residents’ perceptions of implant surgical training in advanced education in prosthodontic programs. J Prosthodont. 2010;19(7):557-564. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2010.00631.x.  37. Hussaini S, Weiner S, Ahmad M. Implant survival rates in a condensed surgical and prosthetic training program for general practitioners in dental implants. Implant Dent. 2010;19(1):73-80. 38. Katsoulis J, Wälchli J, Kobel S, Gholami H, Mericske-Stern R. Complications with computer-aided designed/computer-assisted manufactured titanium and soldered gold bars for mandibular implant-overdentures: short-term observations. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2015;17 Suppl 1:e75-85. doi: 10.1111/cid.12130. 39. Donos N, Mardas N, Buser D ; 1st European Consensus Workshop in Implant Dentistry University Education. An outline of competencies and the appropriate postgraduate educational pathways in implant dentistry. Eur J Dent Educ. 2009;13 Suppl 1:45-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.01528.x. 40. Afshari FS, Yuan JC, Quimby A, Harlow R, Campbell SD, Sukotjo C. Advanced predoctoral implant program at UIC: description and qualitative analysis. J Dent Educ. 2014;78(5):770-778. 41. Vandeweghe S, Koole S, Younes F, De Coster P, De Bruyn H. Dental implants placed by undergraduate students: clinical outcomes and patients’/students’ perceptions. Eur J Dent Educ. 2014;18 Suppl 1:60-69. doi: 10.1111/eje.12077. CV Meret Cécile Gebistorf is a former undergraduate student of the Unversity of Bern, Switzerland. She is currently in her 4th year of the postgraduate program in the departement of Orthodontics at the University of Bern. In between her undergraduate and postgraduate program, she has gained more practical experience in a private practice treating adults and children. Her other research interest is gingival recessions in orthodontically treated patients. Meret Cécile GEBISTORF DMD, Postgraduate Student Department of Orthodontics School of Dental Medicine University of Bern Bern, Switzerland Questions The mean age of the patient seeking implants was qa. 30 years; qb. 40 years; qc. 60 years; qd. 80 years. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) after 8 years of observation time was qa. 95.4 %; qb. 97.1 %; qc. 98.6 %; qd. 100 %. Did the different prosthetic reconstructions have an influence on the implant failure rates ? qa. Yes, because an implant bridge had a significantly lower survival rate than single crowns (SC); qb. Yes, because removable suprastructues had a significantly lower failure rate than fixed suprastructures; qc. Yes, because SC had a significant higher failure rate than the other suprastructures; qd. No, there was no significant difference. The implants inserted were positioned mainly qa. In the anterior maxilla; qb. In the anterior mandible; qc. In the posterior maxilla; qd. In the posterior mandible. PROSTHETIC RECONSTRUCTIONS AND REFERRING IMPLANT SURVIVAL IN A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

STOMATOLOGY EDU JOURNAL © 2017 Frontier Theme