• Occlusion and TMJ

The influence of occlusion on masticatory efficiency considering relevant influencing factors

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25241/stomaeduj.2020.7(3).art.6

 

Abstract
Introduction The role of the occlusal quality as a relevant factor for mastication is controversially discussed. This paper aims to determine the role of the occlusion given the influencing factors. The correlation between the subjective evaluation of treatment needs and objective chewing test results are assessed.
Methodology 842 participants (female n=460, 54.5%; male n=382, 45.4%) performed a standardized chewing test. The participants’ occlusal quality, angle classification, age, gender, treatment needs and intraoral status were recorded. The participants were instructed to break down the standardized chewing tests units. The particles were collected in a sieve and placed on a calibrated acquisition board. Standardized images were analysed, measuring the areas of each particles in mm2. Null Hypotheses were tested with the Kruskal-Wallis tests and post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction, to be rejected at p≤0.01.
Results The occlusion quality has a significant impact on the chewing efficiency (p≤0.001), but angle classification only to some extent. Age (p≤0.001) and gender (p≤0.001) are important intrinsic factors. Fixed prosthodontics do not reach the chewing performance of natural occlusion (p≤0,01). The subjective clinical assessment of treatment needs correlates in categories with strong differentiations (p≤0,001), but not if only minor differences are asserted (p≤0,515).
Conclusion The occlusion quality has a significant impact on the chewing efficiency. Masticatory performance is highly dependent on the natural or artificial chewing surface morphology. Age, gender and the intraoral status are important intrinsic factors. The maintenance of a sufficient functional oral status is a crucial task in the care of the aging population.

Keywords
Chewing Efficiency; Chewing Surface Morphology; Dental Occlusion; Mastication; Standardized Chewing Test.