The influence of the oral microbiome on general health
Johannes Friedrich Carl Rohr1a*, Aldis Rozenblats1b , Guntars Selga1c , Ingrīda Čēma1d
1Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, RSU Institute of Stomatology, Rīga Stradiņš University, Rīga, Latvia
aDental Student; e- mail: Jo.Rohr@me.com
bDDS, MSc, Assistant Professor; e-mail: Aldis.Rozenblats@rsu.lv; ORCIDiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9087-9183
cDDS, MSc, Associate Professor; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCIDiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2363-2644
dDDS, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department; e-mail: Ingrida.Cema@rsu.lv; ORCIDiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0937-6157
Background The oral microbiome hosts a large number of microorganisms that play a critical role in oral and general health. Many factors can cause dysbiosis of the otherwise beneficial interrelationship between host and microbiome. Understanding and identifying microbial shifts and keystone pathogens that correlate with general diseases of the body holds many opportunities.
Objective The aim of this literature review is to present scientific evidence about disease-associated microbial shifts in the oral cavity, the effect on oral and general health and give the reader insights into alternative, new treatment approaches. This review is also intended to inspire practitioners to consider a more holistic care approach.
Data sources A search was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect. The general key terms used were: “Oral microbiome AND health”, “Oral microbiome AND general disease”. Disease-specific searches were performed. Articles found by cross-referencing were included.
Study selection Original studies and meta-analyses were included. Articles published in 2012 or later were preferentially considered. Reviews were included if deemed valuable and labelled in the text. Articles not written in English were excluded.
Data extraction The reviewer assessed each article for their relevance and methodology. Results were evaluated according to their sample size and whether or not the same result was replicated in different studies.
Data synthesis Individual etiological factors correlate with several, seemingly unrelated diseases. This article directs the reader towards understanding the more unusual interconnections and utilizing multidisciplinary treatment approaches, that are aimed at reestablishing an overall balance within the oral microbiome.
Oral microbiome; Systemic diseases; Oral health; Probiotics; Dysbiosis.
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