Continuing medical education in European dentistry

FDI CE Program Director for Europe presents the role of continuing medical education for practitioners in Europe[…]

Hande Şar Sancaklı
(read pdf)

The concept of complete dentistry

The well-known Dr. Peter E. Dawson makes a plea for the Concept of Complete Dentistry, which was necessary for yesterday’s “tooth dentists” to turn into physicians of the total masticatory system[…]

Peter E. Dawson
(read pdf)

Transparency in peer review

The way manuscripts are processed with the Manuscript Manager is introduced, as it guarantees both the peer-review process and its transparency as well as a high scientific level[…]

Jean-François Roulet

(read pdf)


Laudatio, to our beloved mentor, Professor Rudolf Slavicek

Professor Rudolf Slavicek’s anniversary is celebrated via a review of his scientific creation and his significant influence on the dentistry of the late twentieth century[…]

Jean-Daniel Orthlieb
(read pdf)




Effects of exposure time and exposure distance on the micro-mechanical properties of light cured pit and fissure sealants

It is a study which aimed to perform comparative measurements on the effect of exposure time and exposure distance on the micro-mechanical properties Vickers hardness (HV) and indentation modulus (E) of light cured, resin-based pit and fissure sealants[…]

Maria Holroyd, Nicoleta Ilie

(abstract) Introduction: The study aimed to perform comparative measurements on the effect of exposure time and exposure distance on the micro-mechanical properties Vickers hardness (HV) and indentation modulus (E) of light cured, resin-based pit and fissure sealants.Material and Methods: Thirteen pit and fissure sealants were selected. Combinations of three clinically relevant exposure times (10, 20, 40 s) and two, fixed sample – light source exposure distances (4 and 7 mm) were tested. The HV and E of each group (n = 6) were measured with an automatic hardness indenter. Data were analyzed by a multi-variant analysis and partial eta-squared (ηp2) statistic.Results: The factor “material” had the most significant influence (significance level α ≤ 0.05) on the measured micro-mechanical properties E and HV as shown by a ηp2 statistic (ηp2 = 0.939 and 0.927 respectively). The factor “exposure time” had a significant but moderate influence on both material properties E and HV (ηp2 = 0.297 and 0.084) whereas a smaller but significant effect of the factor “exposure distance” was only observed for E (ηp2 = 0.049).Conclusions: Properties E and HV are strongly influenced by the type of sealant. On the other hand, the exposure distance had a low influence on these, whilst the exposure time had a greater influence. Exposure time and to a lesser extent exposure distance have a significant effect on the micro-mechanical properties of pit and fissure sealants.Practical Implications: We conclude these findings indicate exposure time to be more significant when considering clinical application of these materials.Keywords: Pit and fissure sealants; micro-mechanical properties; pediatric dentistry; dental materials; curing.  | (read pdf) |


The effect of cleaning procedures on the bond strength of ceramic surfaces contaminated with saliva and try-in paste

The current study assesses the effectiveness of different cleaning procedures on removing the saliva and try-in paste remnants from contaminated zirconia and lithium disilicate surfaces[…]

Luiz H. Gonzaga, Himanshu Arora, William C. Martin

(abstract) Purpose of the study: To evaluate the effectiveness of different cleaning procedures on removing the saliva and try-in paste remnants from contaminated zirconia and lithium disilicate surfaces. Material and Methods: Fifty samples of zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD) and 50 samples of lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 – No contamination with saliva and try-in paste (control); Group 2 – Contamination followed by rinsing with water; Group 3 – Contamination followed by cleaning with NaOCL 7% for 30 seconds; Group 4 – Contamination followed by cleaning with H3PO4 35% for 30 seconds; Group 5 – Contamination followed by cleaning with Ivoclean for 30 seconds. Zirconium oxide cylinders were luted to the samples using Multilink Implant cement. After being stored for 24 hours in a deionized water bath at 370C, the samples were subjected to shear forces at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis.Results: No significant differences were observed between various groups for zirconia samples with all cleaning protocols showing shear bond strengths similar to the control groups. Group 4 showed significant improvement in shear bond strength when compared to control (p < 0.05) for lithium disilicate samples.Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study it could be said that the application of phosphoric acid for 30 seconds is effective to clean lithium disilicate samples contaminated with saliva and try-in paste.Keywords: Bond strength; contamination; saliva; zirconia; lithium disilicate. | (read pdf) |


Influence of fluoride mouthwash containing nanohydroxyapatite on the dentin interface of direct restorations: A randomized controlled crossover in situ study

The study evaluates the influence of a fluoride mouthwash containing nanohydroxyapatite on the dentin bonding interface microhardness of direct resin composite restorations in situ[…]

Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles de Oliveira, Livia Rodrigues de Menezes, Lúcia Trazzi Prieto, Erick Kamiya Coppini, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini Paulillo,
Gisele Damiana da Silveira Pereira

(abstract) Introduction: Toevaluatetheinfluence of afluoride mouthwash containing nanohydroxyapatite on the dentin bonding interface microhardness of direct resin composite restorations in situ. Methodology: Forty human premolars were sectioned and restored with a three-step adhesive system or a self-etch adhesive system and a conventional resin-based composite. After the initial microhardness measurements on the samples’ dentin interface, the restored samples were fixed in acrylic palate appliances for an in situ experiment. Ten volunteers participated in a randomized double-blinded crossover study using the palate appliances and a placebo fluoride mouthwash for one week, one-week wash-out, and one-week fluoride mouthwash containing nanohydroxyapatite. The final microhardness measurements were evaluated, and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test submitted for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05; 0.8 power). Results: There were statistically significant differences between the mouthwash treatments with both adhesive systems tested (p < 0.001). The nanohydroxyapatite used in the mouthwash was an influencing actor on the dentin interface microhardness of resin composite restorations. Conclusion: The fluoride mouthwash containing the nanohydroxyapatite was able to increase the dentin microhardness of the direct resin composite restorations regardless of the adhesive system used. Keywords: Dental materials; composite resins; dental adhesive; mouthwashes. | (read pdf) |


Oral health behaviour and awareness of young population in Turkey

The oral health behavior and awareness of the young population in Turkey is assessed in this study[…]

Görkem Sengez, Sina Saygılı, Mehmet Yıldız, Uğur Aksoy, Hande Șar Sancaklı

(abstract) Introduction: Transition from adolescence to adulthood is an important episode in life since it determines a person’s long-time health behavior and their tendency to carry chronic diseases. The present study aims to assess oral health behavior and awareness of the young population in Turkey.Methodology: A sample of 2,740 students (1309 male, 1431 female) from 5 different universities studying 10 different degree subjects completed a questionnaire related to their oral health behavior. Age, gender and degree subjects were also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0.Results: 66.6% of the students brushed their teeth twice or more times daily. The brushing frequency of students studying different degree subjects is significantly different(p<0.01). Dental students have the highest brushing frequency whereas sports students have the lowest. 38% of the participants indicated that they use mouthwash; however, only 21.2% used it daily. 21.2% of the participants visit a dentist once or twice per year. 50.9% of the participants experience bleeding while brushing. Only 28.8% had regular scaling and polishing. 22.6% of the participants smoke, while 18.8% stated that they have halitosis.Conclusion: The present study indicated that oral health behavior of young population needs to be further improved. Therefore, oral health education programs should be initiated to emphasize the importance of oral hygiene.Keywords: Oral hygiene; health attitude; health education; health risk behaviors; toothbrushing. | (read pdf) |


Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets using the open healing technique and tissue level implants

What the current study indicates is the clinical significance of the combination of the “open healing” technique, with immediate implant placement of a tissue level implant into a fresh extraction socket with partial or complete loss of the buccal bone plate, a combination which has significant benefits for both the clinician and the patient[…]

Alecsandru Ionescu, Aliona Dodi, Vasileios Panagopoulos, Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu, Augustin Mihai, Gabriela Tănase

(abstract) Introduction: Correctly managed, immediate implant placement into fresh extraction socket is a favorable treatment option in order to reduce the overall treatment time and to increase the patient’s comfort and satisfaction.Methodology: Atraumatic extractions (N = 42) with socket preservation were performed in n = 40 patients (0.74 sex ratio) followed by immediate placement of tissue level implants. Post extraction sockets were filled with either platelet-rich growth factors (PRGF) clots, or deproteinized bovine bone granules, or both; then covered by collagen resorbable membrane or cyanoacrylate and left exposed during healing. The pre-loading need for additional augmentation was assessed clinically and radiologically, using CBCT scans at t = 6 months. The success and survival rate were evaluated by control CBCT scans at a 4 year follow-up.Results: This analysis showed that “open healing” technique allowed uneventful healing and sufficient bone formation in combination with immediate placement of soft tissue level implants, a survival rate of 100% and a success rate of 95.2% at a 4 yr follow-up. There were no significant differences regarding crestal bone level stability around the implants with the different augmentation materials. Conclusion: Immediate placement of tissue level implants in fresh post extraction sockets using “open healing” approach can be favorable from both a clinical and radiological point of view considering the results at 4 years. In addition, soft-tissue problems associated with extensive flap mobilization and tension may be avoided and the 3D architecture of hard and soft tissues surrounding the implant may be maintained due to the tissue level implants design in accordance with the biological width when restored. Keywords: Immediate implant placement; open healing; flapless; biological width  | (read pdf) |




Partial ceramic crowns. Esthetic and tissue conservative restorations – Part II: Anterior teeth – laminate veneers

The article discusses and describes the results obtained over the last 20 years as well as the data from the literature on partial crowns in anterior teeth, i.e. laminate veneers[…]

Gottfried Schmalz, Marianne Federlin

(abstract) Background: For anterior teeth with large defects or for teeth which need major changes in color, shape or size, laminate veneers are a highly esthetic and comparatively tissue conservative treatment option within a large group of other therapeutic measures. The survival rates of laminate veneers are > 90% over 10 years and in the range of full coverage crowns. For patients with heavy bruxism and/or small clinical crowns the longevity may be reduced.Objective: to review the main guidelines for dental treatment using laminate veneers.Data Sources: dental literature (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar) about laminate veneers between 1998 and 2019. Study Selection: articles, reviews and textbooks about laminate veneers were selected to obtain the most relevant information.Data Extraction: all data evidence-based about laminate veneers technique were extracted. Data Synthesis: all data considered important and relevant for the laminate veneers technique were presented step by step in a coherent and concise way. The conclusions were:
•Preparation should be as conservative as possible (0.3 – 0.5 mm cervical-buccal reduction).
•Special methods for impression taking and for temporization should be applied. •The ceramic material needs to have optimal esthetic properties including adequate translucency.
•The choice of the luting material is based on optimal bonding (etch & rinse, SE). Solely light curing luting composite materials or flowable composites can be used for optimal and long-lasting esthetics for ceramic thickness of up to 1 mm.
•In order to protect the laminate veneers against parafunctional forces during night sleep a protective splint (night guard) is recommended. Keywords: Laminate veneers; dental ceramic; esthetics; dental light curing; flowable composite resins.
| (read pdf) |


Psychoneuroimmunology of oral diseases – A review

The review focuses on the diseases affected by psycho-neuro-immunological factors which occur in the oral cavity[…]

Matej Par, Zrinka Tarle

(abstract) Background: Various oral stimuli that are perceived by the brain as stressful can trigger patterns of neurological activity which then directly influence immune and endocrine response. Objective: To analyze the psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunological interactions involved in oral diseases and conditions. Data sources: Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar were databases researched for peer review articles in indexed journals. Study selection: A literature search limited to peer-reviewed articles in indexed journals published before January 2019 was performed using specific keywords. 107 articles were selected.Data extraction: The aspects related to psycho-neuro-immune interactions relevant for dental practitioners were synthesized and presented in the form of narrative review. Oral diseases and conditions in which psychological factors act through neurological, endocrine and immunological mechanisms are discussed. The following clinical entities were included: periodontitis, oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, temporomandibular disorders, herpes labialis, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical odontalgia. Additionally, the role of psycho-neuro-immunological factors on bacterial adherence and oral microbiome is briefly discussed.Data synthesis: Various oral diseases and conditions of multifactorial etiology can be influenced by psycho-neuro-immunological interactions. In daily practice, clinicians should be aware of the interplay between mental and general health and consider addressing psychological disturbances as a supplement for conventional treatment modalities. Recognizing these interactions should help to better understand the relationship between mental and physical health.Keywords: Periodontitis; Lichen planus, oral; Stomatitis, aphthous; Temporomandibular joint disorders; Herpes labialis.  | (read pdf) |


Adviser of dental industry quality products: IDS 2019

There is significant information on important products exhibited by dental manufacturers present at IDS 2019[…]

Florin-Eugen Constantinescu
| (read pdf) |



Concepts in Oral Medicine – tractatio, concipio, documentatio. Volume I, II, III

Rudolf Slavicek

| (read pdf) |


Oral Rehabilitation for Compromised and Elderly Patients

Alexandre Mersel

| (read pdf) |

Oral Rehabilitation

Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry. Material Selection and Technique

Douglas A. Terry, Willi Geller

| (read pdf) |

Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry

Diseases and Conditions in Dentistry. An Evidence-Based Reference

Keyvan Moharamzadeh

| (read pdf) |

Diseases and Conditions in Dentistry

Therapeutic Ultrasound in Dentistry. Applications for Dentofacial Repair, Regeneration, and Tissue Engineering

Tarek El-Bialy, Eiji Tanaka, Dror Aizenbud

| (read pdf) |

Therapeutic Ultrasound in Dentistry

Application of the Neutral Zone in Prosthodontics

Joseph J. Massad, David R. Cagna, Charles J. Goodacre, Russell A. Wicks, Swati A. Ahuja

| (read pdf) |

Application of the Neutral Zone

Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint

Ingrid Rozylo-Kalinowska, Kaan Orhan

| (read pdf) |

Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint